Kalinga Temple
  Description: Description: Description: Rameswar 2.JPG  


Toorana Mukteswar.JPG

Palm Leaf Book3.jpg Idol worship, the most ancient of worship forms, organised when the first man feared natural elements for their sheer power, and submitted before their icons. Harmonious environmental co-existence on earth through harness of powerful natural energies was better known & practised by man, in the Stone Ages. And indeed natural elements have in store abundance of all forms of energy, required for Man. In the present hi-tech world, this knowledge is getting extinct in some parts and have  led  to the dependence on artificially generated, environment damaging energies.

If thorough study & understanding of the elements is termed as worship, well- no- objections !!

In Kalinga the ancient land of SAKTA cult, divine iconography existed since the mythological era. But as far as present day knowledge goes, idols (deities) were placed under auspicious Trees in the ancient days. And maybe today a Temple in general carries various minute details and the overall shape of some heritage tree. The various outstanding aspects of Kalinga Temple that need in depth study are :-

(1) Architecture
(2) Iconography
(3) History
(4) Customers & Traditions &
(5) Associated Legends.

Sri Durga Panda's Book..JPGIn this chapter, with our massive effort, we shall try to simplify a small part of the large, intricated ancient subject, the sacred "Agni Purana" and Shilpa Shastra to increase wareness. We are indebted to Shree Durga Charan Panda, whose book in Oriya " Kalinga Mandira Sthapatya" besides many references, was of great value during our research.


Temple Rajarani is a Saptarathak rathakajukta angasikhara bimana and a naachalia piddha mohana jagamohana..JPG

Kalinga Deula (Temples)

Kalinga Temples were not only the abode of Deities, but also were sacred places for healthy congregation and various socio-cultural activities. Minute attention to every detail was unfailingly paid because the Chief Patron was the Lord of the Land-the King. Perhaps the magnificence of architectural science and the sincere effort of people, have kept some of the marvels in stone, standing before us for the last Fourteen Hundred Years. It shall indeed be worthwhile to dwell briefly on the following important aspects.

Description: Description: Description: Manusmruti.jpg(A) The People : Hierarchy of Command (as per Mannusmrutee)


(i)Karta : The Chief Patron of the Temple generally is the King of the state. Hence these devotional ancient architectures often reflect various socio-cultural aspects of society of the time.


(ii)Mukhya Stapatti : The Chief Architect, The Master of the Shilpa Shastra, Vastu Shastra, Dharma Shastra, Agni Puranna, Silpa Ratnakara  and Mathematical Calculations.


Description: Description: Description: Silpa Sastra.jpg     Description: Description: Description: vastusastra.jpg     Description: Description: Description: manava-dharma-sastra.jpg     Description: Description: Description: Agni purana.jpg    Silpa Ratnakar.JPG

Besides being a very knowledgeable person he is also a very pious man. He translates the Karta's vision into an architectural design based on stipulations.

(iii)Sutra Grahanni :The Chief Engineer (can be equated) as he is the person who translates the architecture into actual geometrical dimensions. He is equally proficient in all the required knowledge and most often is the son of the Mukhya Stapati.

(iv)Bardhanikas :The Masons, the Stone Setters.

(v)Takshyaka :The sculptor with hands that create poetry in stone does all the magnificent carvings and engravings of various forms that has left us spell bound.

Besides these primary set of specialists, various supportive functions are carried out by other people.

(B)The Material : Primarily certain classes of stone are considered auspicious in the construction of temples. Though, clay brick have been used in very rare cases. As per Shilpa Chandrika, the following seven varieties of stone are ideal and specific types are used for certain portions of the temple :

(1) Sahanna-    

(5) Rassa Chhinda-

(2) Chhita Sahanna-

(6) Nilla Kussana-

(3) Bada Pagada-

(7) Aakarma Silla-

(4) Dhoba Khunda-

(C)Site Selection : Various aspects like Type of Soil, Shape of the Plot, location of the Plot, available open and type of Space and ground water table etc are taken in to consideration while selecting the site. Colour, Density, Composition and Moisture content of the soil discriminates between the Bhrahmana, Kshetriya, Saivaya and Sudra class of soil. And adhering to Vastusastra, a rectangular, square, elliptical or circular plot of land is selected in order of preference.

(D)Naga Bandhani : is an intricate and ancient method in Shilpasastra, by which the temples direction and the auspicious moment for beginning the sacred construction is determined. Like the present day Geomorphology, Seismology, Topology etc, probably this is some ancient science which guides the architect to understand natural forces and build stable massive structures in Orissa.

(E)Scale Model : The Mukhya Stapti creates a scale model based on traditional stipulations and takes the Karta's approval. In many instances we see such depictions on walls and motifs. One such scale model still exists just behind the Jagganath Temple at Puri.

(F)Potta and Pitha-(Mobile Foundation) : We were surprised to find some eminent author mentioning that Temples in Orissa in general do not have foundations. Actually, with a paradigm shift from the present day conventional masonry and going through the following steps of the preparation of Potta and Pitha, shall indeed highlight the importance that is awarded to the foundation of a temple.



Description: Description: Description: Potta.jpgA square or rectangular area is dugout depending on the type and combination of temple proposed at the center of the preselected Nagabandhani plot of land.


The depth of this pit is 1/3 of the height of the proposed temple, from plinth level.


The length and breadth of this Potta (pit) is always sufficiently broader than the diameter of the proposed temple.


Hard stone slabs are laid at the bottom to create a level.


Then with uniformly cut hard stones, the four walls of the Potta are erected and the outer perimeter space between the pit wall and ground is properly filled with soil.

(vi)Description: Description: Description: astaDalaPadma.jpg

Description: Description: Description: SankuRekha.jpgThe Astadala Padma Chakadda, ( on the left) is then laid at the exact spot required. This is a square or rectangular shape of hard uniform stone slab at the center of which an eight petaled lotus shape in exact geometric proportions is engraved. The petals are aligned to the north, north-east, east, south, south-west, west and north-west. The exact perpendicular line through the center of this Astadalapadma Chakadda determines the axis (rekha/meru) of the temple( figure on right). The traditional method of such alignment is termed as Sanku Rekha Nirnaya.


Thereafter the Potta is properly packed up with large pieces of stone and soil, probably pressed down by elephants.


The Potta (pit) is levelled off at ground level with huge and thick cut theodolite stones.


Description: Description: Description: Pithha of a temple, Bahirangeswara.jpgAnother layer of theodolite stones, corresponding to the shape and size of the ground plan called the Pithha is constructed ( Plinth ). This is the base of the temple. In many instances, we see this Pitha at various levels of elevation.

Description: Description: Description: navaRathakaBhuNaksa.jpg (G) Bhunaksa- (the ground plan) : Keeping the Sanku (the verticle axis through the center of Astadala padma Chakadda) as the exact center of Garbhagruha, the ground plan of the proposed temple is engraved by the Stapati and Sutragrahani with the help of a sharp edged instrument, on the perfectly levelled Pitha. As temples in every of their details depend on proportions, complex ancient methods are used for correct geometric designing and executing the ground plan (bhunaksa) to ensure long term stability and aesthetic appearance of these huge structures. Simplicity or intricacy of the temple is reflected in this ground plan, Bhunaksa.

Engraved Bhunaksa.JPG    Bhunaksa engraved on a stone slab before Mukteswar..JPG

(Bhunaksa engraved on a stone slabs before Mukteswara Temple, Bhubaneswar)

Thereafter, the Bardhanikas set about pre-cut stones, under the strict vigilance of Sutragrahani as per the Bhunaksa.  Deula gaddanni has started.


   Description: Description: Description: Mukteswar Temple complex.JPG   

The Kalinga Deula.



Temple architecture in Orissa, evolved over a long period of time. Stipulated architectural principles with ample provision for artistic improvisation enabled the progressive generations to excel in splendour and created masterpieces in stone called the Temple of Orissa.

Temples in Orissa are based on certain fundamental principles of stability and take cue from the human body. The superstructure is basically divided into 3 parts, the Baada (Lower Limb), The Gandee (Body) & the The Mastaka (Head). Accordingly, treatment to the different parts, are given from the architecture to the final ornamentation of the Temple.

In this chapter we shall dwell on the different types of temple and their different structural parts. As already stated, Orissa Temples are based on the equation of proportions. Hence we shall also try to simplify some of the principle proportion for basic understanding :-



               (1) REKHA DEULA



a) Padma Garbha

a)Dwichallia Pidhha

b) Ratha Jukta

b) Nahachallia Pidhha

c) Meru Saili

c) Kathachalia Pidhha

d) Ghantashree Mohana

e) Pidhha Mohana

f) Naddu Mohana

Besides these 3 primary types of Temples, We also come to see temples with admixture of styles in Orissa.


Rekha Deula or Rathaka Deula are also called the Vimana or Garbhagriha or Sanctum Sanctorium. Rekha or Rathakas also called as Paagas, are fundamentally the curvilinear pilasters those rise from the base (plinth, pithha) to the bottom of Mastaka. These Rathakhas or Paagas play vital role and based on these Rathakhas, Temples in Orissa are sub-classified as :-


Eka Ratha Deula ( most ancient now non existant)



Thri Ratha Deula ( A cuboid temple )



Pancha Ratha Deula ( 5 pilaster temple )



Sapta Ratha Deula ( 7 pilaster temple, common )



Naba Ratha Deula ( 9 pilaster temple, rare / few )





These increase in the number of Paagas or Rathakhas are over many generations and as a result of progressive improvisation. While Eka Ratha Deulas are the most ancient fundamental temples, these have become extinct. Most temples fall under the Pancha Rathaka or Sapta Rathaka Deula sub category. Naba Rathaka Deulas are very rare and are ultimate examples of Kalinga  Temples architecture.


(Bhunaksa or the ground plan of a 5 pilaster  temple. The perpendicular curvilinear ridge on both sides of a pilaster makes it two pilasters.)


Are the curvilinear pilasters like structures, rising vertically from the 'Pittha' (plinth), continuing through two of the three body segments of the temple (the Badda and the Gandhi) and terminate at Bissama, below the Mastaka part. These pilasters or Rathakas are also called Paagas actually characterise the temple. Primarily these Paagas are ::

(i) Ratha Paaga.
(ii) Annuraha Paaga or Annartha Paaga.
(iii) Kannika Paaga or Kani Paaga.

The proportion of the width of these Paagas are as :: Raha=8, Annu=3, Kani=4 when temple hieght is 100. Thus in various temples we see the following combination of Paagas ::

(i) Ekaratha Deula--

A cuboid temple.

(ii) Triratha Deula--

1 Raha Paaga and 2 Kannika Paagas.

(iii) Pancharatha Deula--

1 Raha Paaga, 2 Annuraha Paaga and 2 Kannika Paaga.

(iv) Saptaratha Deula--

1 Raha Paaga, 2 Kanni, 2 Annuraha, 2 Parirathaka.

(v) Nabaratha Deula--

1 Raha, 2 Annuraha, 2 Kanni, 2 Pariraha, 2 Parikanika.


The subdivision of Annuraha and Kannika Paagas are also referred as Pari rathaka and Pari kanika.

As already stated, the three vertical segments of a temple are the (A) Bada, (B) the Gandi and (C) the Mastaka. These are again subdivided into various structural components ::

(A) BAADA ( Portion lower of Body or Leg ) ::

Baada is the vertical section of pilasters from the Pithha (plinth) up to 1/3rd the height of a Meru Saili Rekha Deula, measured up to the base of the Kalasa. The enclosure created by this Baada is the Garbhagruha or sanctum sanctorum. The different vertical sections of Baada are ::
from the bottom...

(i) Paabhaga or Paada.

(sacred foot).

(ii) Taala Jangha.

(lower leg).

(iii) Bandhanni.


(iv) Uppara Jangha.

(upper leg).

(v) Barandi.


Depending upon the combination of these parts, Baada is again sub-categorised as ::

(a) Trianga Bada. -- With Paabhaga, Jangha and Barandi. This is an initial stage in the evolution of Orissa Temple Architecture, when the Jangha was not subdivided.

(b) Panchanga Bada -- With Paabhaga, Tala Jangha, Bandhani, Uppara Jangha and Barandi.

In brief, the proportion of these vertical sections are ::
Barandi = Paabhaga = A.   Tala Jangha = Uppara Jangha = 5/6 A and Bandhanni = A/3.
And A = 8 units when temple hieght is 100.


( from left The Padma Paada, Tallajangha upto Bandhani and there after Upparajangha upto Barandi )

Paabhaga and Barandi ::

Paabhaga and Barandi are the two vertical sections at the bottom and top of Bada respectively. These are created of various horizontal designs in stone called the Karmas like Khura, Kumbha, Padma, Pati, Kanni, Basanta etc. Combination of 3, 5, or 7 of these Karmas are termed as Trikarma, Pancha Karma or Sapta Karma respectively. While Paabhaga is generally in trikarma or Panchakarma,  Barandi is usually Saptakarma.Description: pada_barandi.jpg ( The Saptakarma Barandi design and the panchakarma Paabhaga ) Usually the karmas are Khura, Padma, Kalasa, Kanni, Patti, Basanta etc.

(B) GANDEE :: ( Body )

Gandee is  the body segment of temple above the Bada, where in the Rekhas or Paagas are prominent. These Rathakas or Paagas rising above the Bada level, gradually curve inward and at Bisama, form a horizontal surface called the Ghodachakadda. This Ghoodachakadda is similar to the Astadalapadma chakadda already discussed in Potta. In case of Ghoodachakadda, the lotus motif on the stone slab faces down and the Sanku Rekha (vertical axis) passes through the center. It is named as Ghoodachakadda because Chakadda means a slab of stone and Ghooda means cover, or a cover of stone slab.

Gaandi (Body)               Anga Sikhara on Raha

In improvised temples, on the four Raha Paagas, towards the lower middle portion of Gaandi, either Bajra Mastaka motif or Anga Sikhara (miniature temples) can be noticed.

Bajramukha and Udyatasingha on Baada of Lingaraj.JPG      Bajramukha on Mukteswara Baada.JPG

Bajramastaka on the Rahapaagas of Lingaraj and Mukteswara.

In Tall temples more than one Ghoodachakadda are used, which means that many levels or closed chambers are created. As per ritual various things are kept in these chambers. To facilitate controlled ventilation, small openings through Udayata Singha are kept. And these Udayata Singha are located above the level of Ghoodachakadda .


    Another important component of Gandee are the Kannika Paagas. These pilasters are created of horizontal bar (Barandi) like designs and at every 3 or 4 or 5 such Barandias a Bhumi (level) is create. Often this demarcation is marked by Bhumi Amala (goose berry like structure corner stone). And depending upon the height of the temple we come to see between five to ten such Bhumis.




The Udyatasingha                                                                                      Udyatasinghas indicating the location of Ghoodachakadda.



(C) MASTAKA ::( Neck and Head portion )





The head segment of temple generally divided into six parts ::


 (i)  Beki ::

The neck

(ii) Tripatta Dhara ::

Three thin line on upper portion of Beki and just under Amalakasila.

(iii) Amlakasila ::

Or also called the Amlakashree.  A goose berry structured stone.

(iv) Khapuri ::

Cap like structure on the Amlakasila.

(v) Kalasa ::

Is the sacred pot and has 8 subparts like Pada, Dori, Handi, Patti, Handi, Beki, Khapuri and Ghaddi.
So also called the Astanga Kalasa.

(vi) Ayudha ::

The sacred weapon. Generally we come across the Trishula and the Chakra

Very uncommonly we come across the Ankusha ( on Lingaraj Temple,BBS.
These are firmly located on the Astanga Kalasa. And Dhwaja (flag) is tied to this Ayudha





Mastaka of Boitala.JPG  Mastaka, Tripattadhara visible..JPGMastaka and components..JPG

Mastaka of Boitala Temple           A Mastaka with Beki,Tripattadhara,Amlakasilla, Khapuri and Kalasa.                           Mastaka on Bissama.


The Astanga ( eight part ) Kalasa.


Astanga Kalasa.JPG  kalasa.jpg


Invariable superior stones are used for the Mastaka part. Especially the Kalasa is often made of the best (Mugunni, black granite) stone and in large Kalasas, more than one stone are joined properly.


 The Ayudhas ( Sacred weapon atop a temple)


These Ayudhas discriminates between a Saivite and Vaishnavite temple.

trisula.jpg                      nilachakra1.jpg

Ayudhas being very delicate and placed at the apex of a temple, are generally made of Astadhatu (alloy of 8 metals) though we still see very few Ayudhas made of stone.

While in a Meru saili Rekha Deula, the height is between 2.5 to 3 times of the base of the temple, in Padmagarbha and Rathakajukta Rekha Deulas, the proportion is much less. 

In a Padmagarbha, the Gandi part is plain and the temple appears like a Siva Linga.

 Where as in a Rathakajukta Rekha Deula the Rathakas or Paagas are prominent in the Bada and Gandi part of temple.

Rameswar 5.JPG Merusaili Rekha deula..JPG Padmagarbha at Sidheswara.JPG Padmagarbha.JPG Rajarani, saptarathaka angasikhara  Rathakajukta type..JPG Padmagarbha Sidheswara.JPG

Meru Saili Bimana                                                    Padma Garbha                                                Rathakajukta Temples where the rathakas are prominent.


With this in brief on Rekha Deulas we shall proceed to the other type of temple called   Pidhha Deula.




  Description: Description: Description: Bhaskareswar 2.JPG      



In the initial period, a Rekha Deula used to exist in isolation. But subsequently to protect from rain & sun the Bhaktas (worshipers) who congregated in Bhajanas and Kirtans outside the temple, thatched rectangular structures were erected. These structures took shape in stone and are termed as Jagamohana or Bhadra Mandiras, the equivalent of Mukhasala in northern temples. Progressive improvisation brought about two more utility structures in to the temples complex, the Natamandap (divine theatre) and the Bhogamandapa (the sacred ladder). And all these associated structures belong to the category of Piddha Deula.


It is a common sight even now in rural Orissa to see Thatched Houses as a common mode of accommodation. The thatched roof is called "Challa" and these stacks of Challa when shaped and cut properly is termed as Piddha. It is believed that at the initial period of Kalinga temples evolutions, such kinds of small  Piddha Deulas were in vogue. And these temples are so called due to their slanting roof resembling the Piddha of a "Challa Ghara" (straw thatched house.)
The Rajarani Temple fromt direct view.JPG

While Rekha Deulas are primarily the main temple {Bimana, Garabha} associated Jagamohan (Mukhasala), Natamandap (divine theatre) and Bhogamandap (sacred ladder) are Piddha Deulas. And while the Rathakas in a Rekha Deula influence the Bada & Gandi portion of the temple, Rathakas in the Bada portion of a Piddha Deula do not influence the upper Gandi part. There are various sizes and shapes of Piddha Deula and they primarily fall into the following classifications ::




(i) Dwichallia Piddha Deula ::    Jagamohana of Boitala.JPG


Dwichallia means two stacks of "Challa" (sloping sections as in the slant roof of a thatched house). In a Dwichalia piddha Deula, we find two prominent slopes with a vertical section in between. Regular openings in this section allows good ventilation inside. These temples are rectangular in shape and one of the face connects with the entrance of the main temple. The roof top of Dwichallia Piddha Deula is a flat surface and do not have the traditional Mastaka components like Amlakasilla, Kalasa and Ayudha. As these are broad structures with flat roof tops, there used to be pillars inside the temple to support the ceiling in earlier constructions. In the subsequent periods, these obstructive pillars could be successfully eliminated through architectural improvisations and research. Indeed a Dwichallia Piddha Deula is a well ventilated spacious structure for sacred congregations.


(ii) Nahachallia Piddha Deula ::


In local Oriya dialect the meaning of Nuania is downward sloping and Challa is the thatched roof. Around the 10th to 11th c AD, while Arts and Craft was receiving good patronage in Orissa, revolutionary developments also influenced the Piddha of the Piddha Deula. Instead of the 3 sided Dwichallia Piddha deula attached to the Bimana (main Rekha Deula), the Nahachallia 4 sided, squarish and detached structures took shape. These Nahachallia Deulas have in their Gandi (portion of temple above the Bada) horizontal ridges (Piddhas) stacked up and apexing at the base of Kalasa instead of flat surface as in Dwichallia Piddha Deula. And in the Mastaka portion of a Nahachallia Piddha deula we find only the Kalasa. And since the roof structure resembles the common Nuania Challa roof such kind of temples or Jagamohanas or Bhadra Mandiras are termed as Nahachallia Piddha Deulas.

(iii) Kathachallia Piddha Deula :-

Katha chhalia Pidha Deula is an improved version of the Nahachalia Deula. Here, Katha means wooden &chhalia is the slating roof as discussed. The pidha or roof section of of kathachalia Pidha Deulas have more prominently and geometrically shaped Pidhas or the pyramidal stack of stone Slabs as roof. These slabs are smooth and sharp and appears as if made of wood. Four to five of these slab layers (Piddhas) made of a Pattala. And each such Pattala is separated vertical section called the kanti. simple petal shapes at regular spacing called the Tanku add grace to the Piddhas in many temples. These Kathachalia pidha Deulas have a much lesser slanting upper section than the steep shapes of Nahachalia Pidhas.

(iv)Ghanta Shree Mohan ::
Ghanta Mohana.JPG

Piddha Deulas are generally classified by the type of Gandee & Mastaka portions found on these Jagamohans. And as an excellence in aesthetics, Ghantashree Mohan types of Piddha Deulas are special. The shape of the mastak portion resembles an ornate huge Bell. And the meaning of Ghantashree is the Sacred Bell. Ghantashree Mohan types of Bhadra Mandiras are a common sight in Orissa. These temples have Ghodachakada at Bisam level as in a Rekha Deula, but here the slab is rectangular/square with Astadala padma at the centre. The Gandee portion of these temples may be of the Nahachalia Piddha or Kathachalia Piddha type.


Description: Pidha mohana of Rajarani..JPG
Kathachalia Piddha Deulas with only the Beki, the Amlaka and the Mastaka portion are called (v) Piddha Mohanas.

 Description: Megheswar with Nedu mohana Jaggamohana.JPGAnd small such temples without the Beki, Amlaka and Kalasa are commonly known as

(vi) Naddu Mohanas.Nedumohana in Lingaraj.JPG

In a piddha Mohanas, the Badda (or the lower portion of the temple till the Barandi) is either a Trirathaka or Pancharathaka type where as usual we see the Tri-angas or Pancha-angas. The Triranga & Panchanga have been discussed in Bada of Rekha Deula. And in general the proportion of some important portion of a Piddha Deula are :-


Total height of Piddhas = 3/4 of height of Badda = width of Ghoodachakada.
Ist Piddha challia = 1/2 height of Barandi.
Subsequent Piddha = 3/4th of previous Piddha.
Height of Mastaka portion = 3/4 the height of Piddha
Diametre of Beki = 1/2 with of Ghodachakada.
Diametre of Amlaka Sila = 1 1/2 of diametre of Beki.
Width of Badda = 3/4th the length of Badda.

And very often the height of a Piddha Deula from the Pittha to Beki is same as the Breadth of the temple.

......Though there are numerous intricate details of a Piddha Deula but the above description shall indeed enable the enlightened viewer to see and appreciate a Piddha Mohana. Now let us look into the 3rd category of Kalinga Temple the Baitala or Khakara Deulas in the subsequent chapter.



Boitala 4.JPGBoitala 2.JPG



Khakara or Baitala temples are a unique and highly decorative type of Devi Mandira (temple of Goddesses). These type of temples have resemblance with the Southern Dravidian temples. Primarily these Khakara Deulas are not as big as the Rekha Deulas but are Ekarathaka and have a unique Mastaka portion. Owing to the shape of Mastaka which resembles a 'Kakharu' (pumpkin, Gourd) these type of temples are called the Khakara Deulas. Some see this Mastaka as an upturned 'Boita' (Boat) and hence the term Baitala Deula. In fact Khakara Deulas are only for the Goddess 'Chandi / Chamundi' and in such temples Betala Puja being offered, some feel the name Baitala Deula is derieved due to this reason. Some architects also term these types as Gouri Chalia Deula too.

There are 3 types of Khakara Deulas :-


According to the treatise Bhuban Pradeepa :-

Dravid Khakara

Bharavi or Ballahbi Khakara

Kosali Khakara


And according to Slipa Prakasha :-


Baitalika Saili Khakara

 Swarna Kuta or Hemakuta Saili Khakara
 Kamagarbha or Bimana Malini Saili Khakara


Khakara Deulas at the top of Mastaka portion either have 3 Amlakasila with Khapuri & Kalasa or one Amalaka at center & two udyata Singha figures on either sides. Often these Khakara Deulas are attached with a Dwi Chalia Piddha Deula as Jagamohan.

Since the proportion of the different structural components vary from the stipulated Slipa sastras in a Khakara Deula, it is believed that these Khakara Deulas are an extraordinary example of Artistic and Architectural experimentation in stone.


Boitala 1.JPGBoitala 3.JPG



And with this we come to the end of chapter Temple Architecture in short and simple.