Ancient Kalinga (Odisha in India)- Time line.
The Baidika Sahitya Erano mention of Kalinga.
The Bhrahma Sahitya Era.and no mention of Kalinga.
The Great Mahabharat
Era. and the mention of Rajapura as the capital of Kalinga.
features in the Boudha Jatakkas and Jaina Grantha Besantara, Satavahana,
Kumbhakara, Kalinga Bodhi Jatakkas & Mahastava and Mahapari Nirvana Suta
As per Harivansa
Purana-"Hari Bhadriya Brutee" MAHAVIR VARDHAMAN spread Jainism in
the Singhalees writer in his DATHA DHHATU BANSA mentions-Khemathir the Budhist
saint, after the Nirvana of Budha presented a tooth of Budha to the then
Kalinga king-Bhrahmadutta, who built a Stupa to place it at Danta Puri/(or
named it so)
The Begining of the
Nanda Dynasty in Magadha The 1st Nanda King-Mahapdmananda rulled Kalinga and as
per some Historians, according to the Hathi Gumpha incriptions, He built a
"Jallaprannaly" (water resourse system) sometime about 300 years
before the 5th year of Kharavela rule.
Nanda Dynasty becoming week Kalinga became independent and till the Chhedi
Dynasty in Kalinga i.e: 255 BC, Kalinga was independent
Alexander the Great,
the last of the Greek Kings, invades India. Magadha comes under the rule of
Alexander, Kalinga was independent
Demise of Alexander
the Great and uprising of the Natives. This is the time when the Mauryan
renegade Chandragupta was very powerfull as a native ruler. Kalinga was
rules Magadha from Pattaliputra. Chanakya Era. A 24 yrs rule. Kalinga was
Selucus the King of
Syria, attacks Chandragupta. Defeated Selucus conceeds to a matrimonial
alliance, four states (.....) and returnsn to Syria with a gift of 500
elephants. Meghasthanas enters the court of Pattaliputra. Kalinga was
sucseeds as the King of Magadha. Deimacros joins the Pattaliputra court.
Kalinga was independent.
Demise of Selucus
Nikkator and Anticos Theos succeeds as King of Syria. King of Egypt, ptolemy
Philladelphos sent Dionysios to the Mauryan court at Pattaliputra. Kalinga was
becomes the desputed king of Magadha after demise of Bindusara.
Coronation of Ashoka
as the king of Magadha at Pattaliputra.
The Great Kalinga
War. Ashoka defeats Kaliinga army. Takes away "Jinnasena" Turning
point for Ashoka. Dhauli / Tosali
Kalinga Rock Edicts
written (Dhauli and Jaugada) Rock incription work of Ashoka, the pillars and
stupas began. The jinna's were employed
Demise of Ashoka
Vardhana (Devanampiyapiyadasi) Accession of Dasaratha and samprati.
independendence under the emergence of the Chhedi dynasty. The 1st Chhedi King.
As per Dr Kasi Prasad Jaiswal
Muder of Bhrihadratha
Maurya of Magadha by Pushyamitra Sunnga and the extiction of Maurya Dynasty.
Birth of Susyamala Kharavela, the 3rd generation Chhedi
Kings of Kalinga.
Sri Susyamala Kharavela becomes
crown prince of Kalinga, Yuvaraja.
Coronation Ceremony of Prince
Kharavela after which be was the Mahameghavahana Kalinga Adhipati Aira Raja
A devastating Super Cyclone in
Kalinga, followed by massive relief, reconstruction and rehabilitation work.
Rennovation and extension of
anancient aquaduct system Tanasalayapata.
Maharaja Kharavela Built the Maha
Vijay Prasad (great victory palace) at Tosali.
Kharavela's invasion and victory
of Anga and Magadha (Pataliputra).
One hundred thirteen exotic
caves, on Kumari Hills (Udayagiri & Khandagiri at Bhubaneswar are parts of)
built as the Great Victory Edifice Maha Vijay Smaraka by Kharavela.
The first permanent theatre was
built by Kharavela at Udayagiri "Ranigumpha"
2nd Century BC.
Hatigumpha Rock Incription of Maharaja Kharavela, Udayagiri, Bhubaneswar,
"With reverence to Saints (Aharta),
Holi-men (Sarbasiddha) and Teachers."
The Aira Maharaja- Mahameghabahana-Chedi (Cheta)- of the royal heirachy, the
Icon of good Omen, the Wise & Knowledgeble widely Travelled, Proficient in
the tactics of Defence and Warfare, Lord of Kalinga Shree Kharavela, enjoyed
his childhood for fifteen years in play. Thereafter as the Yuvaraj for nine
years, he specialised in disciplines like Literature, Histrionic Arts,
Economics and Bussiness Calculations, Tradittional Law etc and was crowned as
the third generation of the Chedi King Dynasty, Maharaja of Kalinga at the
attainment of age twenty four years.
(1) In the very first year of
Kharavela's rule, there occured a Super Cyclone of unprecedented magnitude and
the Kingdom of Kalinga was devastated. With destruction everywhere, people were
in great sufferings. Maharaja Kharavela reconstructed all the damaged
buildings, walls and gates. He constructed "Deep Cold Water Reservoirs and
Aquaducts" and also renovated the damaged Gardens. And thus did good
governance fullfilling the needs of his people at an expenditure of 35 lakhs
(2) In the second year of
rule, Maharaja Kharavela ferociously attacked the "Satakaranis" in
the west with a huge Kalinga Army of War Elephants, Soldiers and Chariots. The
habitats of Asika (or Rasika) were petrified.
(3) A great exponent of Histrionic
Art himself. Kharavela, in his third year of rule, revived the traditions of
Vanity fare (Darpa), Dance (Nata), Music (Geeta) and Orchestra(Badita). By
patronising various social ceremonies he encouraged and entertained his people.
(4) In earlier times at "Arakapura"
(the domain of Bidyadhars), Bidyadhara's enjoyed pride of place and privileges.
In the fourth year of rule, Kharavela terrorised and supressed the corrupt
Bhojakas (Gramapala) and Rastrakas (Khandapala) and prevailed upon them to
return forthright all the illicit wealth, ornaments, gold vessels acquired from
the Bidyadharas of Arakapura. Thereafter again the Bidyadharas were allowed to
lead a lifestyle they lived during earlier Kalinga Kings era.
(5) With an expense of one
lakh soverns, Kharavela in his fifth year of rule, renovated and extended upto
the capital city- the "Tanusalayapatta" aquaduct system which was
built three hundred years before by the first Nanda King
"Mahapadmananda" and brought water.
(6) In the sixth year Maharaja Kharavela,
for the Economic benifit of his citizens, in a gracious gesture Exempted Taxes
and Surcharges to the tune of lakhs of soverns.
(7) Maharaja Kharavela, for the
over all welfare and development of his kingdom, spent lakhs of soverns in the
seventh year of his rule and he toured extensively on supervision with swords,
chariots, flags, sentinals and his cavalery.
(8) In the eighth year on a
"punitive expedition" (Danda Jatra) to Mathura with a huge army, he
destroyed Gorathagiri and terrorised the habitat of Rajagriha. Due to a strong
apprehension of retaliatory attack, the then ruler of Mathura, King Dimitrus of
Greece fled away and Kharavela
proceeded towards Mathura un hindered. And from there with the Kalpa-Brikshya,
Victory Elephants, Chariots and his army, he returned back to his Kingdom. A
grand homecoming feast with compliments for all his employees, Bhramins, Saints
and people of his kingdom was organised.
(9) In the ninth year of his rule,
Kharavela constructed a Baidurjya (Sapphire, cats-eye) studded magnificent
Palace named Maha Vijaya Prasad (The Great Victory Palace), in the royal
premises of the Kalinga Court with an expenditure of thirty eight lakhs
(10) In the tenth year of rule,
Maharaja Kharavela, in memory of past three generations of his forefathers,
organised a grand sacred memorial service, spending one lakh soverns.
(11) Mysitcal Jewel Crowned ( Manni Ratna ) Maharaja Kharavela, in his eleventh
year of rule, went out on an expedition to reclaim for agriculture,
Pithudagadava nagar/ Pruthud a territory of Kalinga, which had turned into a
wild grassland of Timiridaha plants since a hundred thirteen years.
(12) In the twelveth year of rule
Maharaja Kharavela, with a huge Kallinga army invaded Magadha and Anga. He
watered his elephants and horses in the river Ganga. Magadha king
Brihaspathimitra conceeded defeat. Then, with the "Jinnasanna",
(which was/ were earlier taken away from Kalinga by the Magadha Kings) and all
the elephants, horses and wealth from Anga and Magadha, Kharavela returned to
his Kingdom in a grand victory procession. And thus he expanded his protocol in
Magadha and Anga. Then in his kingdom he extensively constructed Bithi
(avenues) Chatwara (courtyard sanctoriums), Parikha (forts/ moats), Goppuras
(maingates). Hundreds of Basukis (Naga Banshis) visited the Maharaja to pay
their respect and gifted him with exotic elephants,horses and other animals.
Even the Pandya King submitted before Maharaja Kharavela and gifted varieties
of ornaments, pearls, jewels and various gemstones in very huge quantities. And
thus even the Pandyas and Basukis came under Kharavelas reign.
(13) Then in the thirteenth
year, Kharavela built a royal complex of one hundred thirteen exotic caves on
Kumari Parbata (Udayagiri & Khandagiri,Bhubaneswar,Orissa are part of) for
the purpose of noble accomodation, meditation and recreation of his queens,
princes, brothers,relatives, royal employees and saints. This was his Maha
Vijaya Smarak, the Victory Edifice.
(14) In the fourteenth year,
Kharavela constructed a marvelous complex structure to house and entertain
Visiting Dignitaries and Sages. Special stones from far off places, dugout from
sacred quarries where saints lived nearby, were brought. From these special
stones, architectural Lapis Lazuli studded Pillars were made. Then with an
expense of seventyfive lakhs soverns, canopies and these Lapis Lazuli studded pillars were installed by the
Maharaja in traditional sacred ceremony.
The able King, Lord of Prosperity, Noble like Indra, Virtuous like Dharmaraj,
he who for the Prosperity of the Kingdom decides through his experience,
knowledge from his people and self involvment, the great Warrior competant in
all disciplines, the Dominator of Aethist, the Esteemed Patron of all Temples,
the Great exponent of Regal Policies, the Chief of a Huge Undefeated Army, the
Overlord of Gupta Chakra and Parvata Chakra.
And here ends the
inscription of King Kharavela on Hatigumpha.