King Kharavel

Ancient Kalinga (Odisha in India)- Time line.

Earlier than 3000 BC

The Baidika Sahitya Erano mention of Kalinga.

3000-2000 BC

The Bhrahma Sahitya Era.and no mention of Kalinga.

1100 BC

The Great Mahabharat Era. and the mention of Rajapura as the capital of Kalinga.

7th-6th C.BC

Kalinga prominently features in the Boudha Jatakkas and Jaina Grantha Besantara, Satavahana, Kumbhakara, Kalinga Bodhi Jatakkas & Mahastava and Mahapari Nirvana Suta

599-527 BC

As per Harivansa Purana-"Hari Bhadriya Brutee" MAHAVIR VARDHAMAN spread Jainism in Kalinga

543 BC

"Dharmakruti", the Singhalees writer in his DATHA DHHATU BANSA mentions-Khemathir the Budhist saint, after the Nirvana of Budha presented a tooth of Budha to the then Kalinga king-Bhrahmadutta, who built a Stupa to place it at Danta Puri/(or named it so)

402 BC

The Begining of the Nanda Dynasty in Magadha The 1st Nanda King-Mahapdmananda rulled Kalinga and as per some Historians, according to the Hathi Gumpha incriptions, He built a "Jallaprannaly" (water resourse system) sometime about 300 years before the 5th year of Kharavela rule.

Subsequently the Nanda Dynasty becoming week Kalinga became independent and till the Chhedi Dynasty in Kalinga i.e: 255 BC, Kalinga was independent

327 BC

Alexander the Great, the last of the Greek Kings, invades India. Magadha comes under the rule of Alexander, Kalinga was independent

June 323 BC

Demise of Alexander the Great and uprising of the Natives. This is the time when the Mauryan renegade Chandragupta was very powerfull as a native ruler. Kalinga was independent.

325 BC

Chandragupta Maurya rules Magadha from Pattaliputra. Chanakya Era. A 24 yrs rule. Kalinga was independent.

305 BC

Selucus the King of Syria, attacks Chandragupta. Defeated Selucus conceeds to a matrimonial alliance, four states (.....) and returnsn to Syria with a gift of 500 elephants. Meghasthanas enters the court of Pattaliputra. Kalinga was independent.

301-298 BC

Bindusara Amritaghata sucseeds as the King of Magadha. Deimacros joins the Pattaliputra court. Kalinga was independent.

235-247 BC

Demise of Selucus Nikkator and Anticos Theos succeeds as King of Syria. King of Egypt, ptolemy Philladelphos sent Dionysios to the Mauryan court at Pattaliputra. Kalinga was independent.

273 BC

Ashoka Vardhana becomes the desputed king of Magadha after demise of Bindusara.

269 BC

Coronation of Ashoka as the king of Magadha at Pattaliputra.

261 BC

The Great Kalinga War. Ashoka defeats Kaliinga army. Takes away "Jinnasena" Turning point for Ashoka. Dhauli / Tosali

257 BC

Kalinga Rock Edicts written (Dhauli and Jaugada) Rock incription work of Ashoka, the pillars and stupas began. The jinna's were employed

232 BC

Demise of Ashoka Vardhana (Devanampiyapiyadasi) Accession of Dasaratha and samprati.

225 BC

Kalinga regains independendence under the emergence of the Chhedi dynasty. The 1st Chhedi King. As per Dr Kasi Prasad Jaiswal

188 BC

Muder of Bhrihadratha Maurya of Magadha by Pushyamitra Sunnga and the extiction of Maurya Dynasty.

133 BC

Birth of Susyamala  Kharavela, the 3rd generation Chhedi Kings of Kalinga.

118 BC

Sri Susyamala Kharavela becomes crown prince of Kalinga, Yuvaraja.

109 BC

Coronation Ceremony of Prince Kharavela after which be was the Mahameghavahana Kalinga Adhipati Aira Raja Kharavela

108 BC

A devastating Super Cyclone in Kalinga, followed by massive relief, reconstruction and rehabilitation work.

104 BC

Rennovation and extension of anancient aquaduct system Tanasalayapata.

100 BC

Maharaja Kharavela Built the Maha Vijay Prasad (great victory palace) at Tosali.

97 BC

Kharavela's invasion and victory of Anga and Magadha (Pataliputra).

95 BC

One hundred thirteen exotic caves, on Kumari Hills (Udayagiri & Khandagiri at Bhubaneswar are parts of) built as the Great Victory Edifice Maha Vijay Smaraka by Kharavela.

95 BC

The first permanent theatre was built by Kharavela at Udayagiri "Ranigumpha"


King on Supitham 1.jpg

King Kharavela.

2nd Century BC.
Hatigumpha Rock Incription of Maharaja Kharavela, Udayagiri, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India


"With reverence to Saints (Aharta), Holi-men (Sarbasiddha) and Teachers."

The Aira Maharaja- Mahameghabahana-Chedi (Cheta)- of the royal heirachy, the Icon of good Omen, the Wise & Knowledgeble widely Travelled, Proficient in the tactics of Defence and Warfare, Lord of Kalinga Shree Kharavela, enjoyed his childhood for fifteen years in play. Thereafter as the Yuvaraj for nine years, he specialised in disciplines like Literature, Histrionic Arts, Economics and Bussiness Calculations, Tradittional Law etc and was crowned as the third generation of the Chedi King Dynasty, Maharaja of Kalinga at the attainment of age twenty four years.

(1)  In the very first year of Kharavela's rule, there occured a Super Cyclone of unprecedented magnitude and the Kingdom of Kalinga was devastated. With destruction everywhere, people were in great sufferings. Maharaja Kharavela reconstructed all the damaged buildings, walls and gates. He constructed "Deep Cold Water Reservoirs and Aquaducts" and also renovated the damaged Gardens. And thus did good governance fullfilling the needs of his people at an expenditure of 35 lakhs soverns.

(2)  In the second year of rule, Maharaja Kharavela ferociously attacked the "Satakaranis" in the west with a huge Kalinga Army of War Elephants, Soldiers and Chariots. The habitats of Asika (or Rasika) were petrified.

(3)  A great exponent of Histrionic Art himself. Kharavela, in his third year of rule, revived the traditions of Vanity fare (Darpa), Dance (Nata), Music (Geeta) and Orchestra(Badita). By patronising various social ceremonies he encouraged and entertained his people.

(4)  In earlier times at "Arakapura" (the domain of Bidyadhars), Bidyadhara's enjoyed pride of place and privileges. In the fourth year of rule, Kharavela terrorised and supressed the corrupt Bhojakas (Gramapala) and Rastrakas (Khandapala) and prevailed upon them to return forthright all the illicit wealth, ornaments, gold vessels acquired from the Bidyadharas of Arakapura. Thereafter again the Bidyadharas were allowed to lead a lifestyle they lived during earlier Kalinga Kings era.

(5)  With an expense of one lakh soverns, Kharavela in his fifth year of rule, renovated and extended upto the capital city- the "Tanusalayapatta" aquaduct system which was built three hundred years before by the first Nanda King "Mahapadmananda" and brought water.

(6)  In the sixth year Maharaja Kharavela, for the Economic benifit of his citizens, in a gracious gesture Exempted Taxes and Surcharges to the tune of lakhs of soverns.

(7)  Maharaja Kharavela, for the over all welfare and development of his kingdom, spent lakhs of soverns in the seventh year of his rule and he toured extensively on supervision with swords, chariots, flags, sentinals and his cavalery.

(8)  In the eighth year on a "punitive expedition" (Danda Jatra) to Mathura with a huge army, he destroyed Gorathagiri and terrorised the habitat of Rajagriha. Due to a strong apprehension of retaliatory attack, the then ruler of Mathura, King Dimitrus of Greece fled away and  Kharavela proceeded towards Mathura un hindered. And from there with the Kalpa-Brikshya, Victory Elephants, Chariots and his army, he returned back to his Kingdom. A grand homecoming feast with compliments for all his employees, Bhramins, Saints and people of his kingdom was organised.

(9)  In the ninth year of his rule, Kharavela constructed a Baidurjya (Sapphire, cats-eye) studded magnificent Palace named Maha Vijaya Prasad (The Great Victory Palace), in the royal premises of the Kalinga Court with an expenditure of thirty eight lakhs soverns.

(10)  In the tenth year of rule, Maharaja Kharavela, in memory of past three generations of his forefathers, organised a grand sacred memorial service, spending one lakh soverns.

(11) Mysitcal Jewel Crowned ( Manni Ratna ) Maharaja Kharavela, in his eleventh year of rule, went out on an expedition to reclaim for agriculture, Pithudagadava nagar/ Pruthud a territory of Kalinga, which had turned into a wild grassland of Timiridaha plants since a hundred thirteen years.

(12)  In the twelveth year of rule Maharaja Kharavela, with a huge Kallinga army invaded Magadha and Anga. He watered his elephants and horses in the river Ganga. Magadha king Brihaspathimitra conceeded defeat. Then, with the "Jinnasanna", (which was/ were earlier taken away from Kalinga by the Magadha Kings) and all the elephants, horses and wealth from Anga and Magadha, Kharavela returned to his Kingdom in a grand victory procession. And thus he expanded his protocol in Magadha and Anga. Then in his kingdom he extensively constructed Bithi (avenues) Chatwara (courtyard sanctoriums), Parikha (forts/ moats), Goppuras (maingates). Hundreds of Basukis (Naga Banshis) visited the Maharaja to pay their respect and gifted him with exotic elephants,horses and other animals. Even the Pandya King submitted before Maharaja Kharavela and gifted varieties of ornaments, pearls, jewels and various gemstones in very huge quantities. And thus even the Pandyas and Basukis came under Kharavelas reign.

(13)  Then in the thirteenth year, Kharavela built a royal complex of one hundred thirteen exotic caves on Kumari Parbata (Udayagiri & Khandagiri,Bhubaneswar,Orissa are part of) for the purpose of noble accomodation, meditation and recreation of his queens, princes, brothers,relatives, royal employees and saints. This was his Maha Vijaya Smarak, the Victory Edifice.

(14)  In the fourteenth year, Kharavela constructed a marvelous complex structure to house and entertain Visiting Dignitaries and Sages. Special stones from far off places, dugout from sacred quarries where saints lived nearby, were brought. From these special stones, architectural Lapis Lazuli studded Pillars were made. Then with an expense of seventyfive lakhs soverns, canopies and these Lapis Lazuli  studded pillars were installed by the Maharaja in traditional sacred ceremony.

Maharaja Kharavela,
The able King, Lord of Prosperity, Noble like Indra, Virtuous like Dharmaraj, he who for the Prosperity of the Kingdom decides through his experience, knowledge from his people and self involvment, the great Warrior competant in all disciplines, the Dominator of Aethist, the Esteemed Patron of all Temples, the Great exponent of Regal Policies, the Chief of a Huge Undefeated Army, the Overlord of Gupta Chakra and Parvata Chakra.


And here ends the inscription of King Kharavela on Hatigumpha.

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