History confirms- a massive population existed in the Prachi / Tosali / Dhauli / Bhubaneswar / Kumari Parbata valley. History of Asoka speak of a massacre in hundreds of thousands and capture in more numbers, which clearly indicates the presence of a Mahajannapada (great population) with enough Knowledge and Prosperity to attract LORD BUDHA, MAHAVIRA & thereafter Asoka in 261 BC.

And water has always held the secret to great civilizations. History of KALINGA confirm the knowledge of sophisticated and time tested water resource management system those days (2 C.BC & beyond).

Interestingly at present (2001 A.D) we foresee an acute shortage of water around this valley while the 4th C.BC system still exists and (may be) functional in places (was function even after 300 years, Kharavela). So I look at the word- TANUSALAYAPATTA- as a system to manage water-- for the whole City / Kingdom was definitely put in place by common (not Royal) people. And in a very common vernacular, the breakup of the word.

TANU-SALYA-PATTA/BATTA........we get the meaning as "From/ On Body-Surgical-Waterway". Where body can mean body of cave, body of wall, body of mountain, body of earth itself (aqua duct).

And with this do we still do not see the "TANUSALYA PATTA" on Kumari Parbata (Khandagiri & Udayagiri hills, Bhubaneswar).


These are introductory few images taken by JK. Dash. Details and more to follow.

Deep geometric grooves in the cave wall. Pool like structure inside the upper storey of Ranigumpha.. Simillar grooves on ceiling of the caves. Deep water channels inside cave rooms... Deep water channels inside cave rooms... Concealed aquaducts... Groove on the wall. A damage in the ceiling enable us to look inside... The inside chamber seems to be like a water storage pit engraved into the monolithic. Clearly visible external water drainage system.

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